此篇為大家由歷史的角度介紹Rosslyn Chapel與聖殿騎士的密切關連。英文部份載至於Frances A. Yates所著之 The Knights Templar in Britian.  由此可得知,Dan Brown所著的『達文西密碼』並不是完完全全天馬行空。有非常多的靈感都是來自於可靠的資料來源。[最主要的:Holy Blood, Holy Grail]而哪些是虛構,哪些是真實的,就讓有興趣的讀者自己去慢慢察覺囉!

This is a historical background introduction to the Chapel.  The English extracts are from the book The Knights Templar in Britian, by Frances A. Yates.  From this, we can see that Dan Brown wasn't completely making things up on his own.  Many of his sources were extremely reliable and thoroughly researched, most notably - Holy Blood, Holy Grail.  As for which parts are fiction and which are actual historical facts, that is for you, the reader, to find out on your own.  That is, if you are interested.



"Roslin Chapel and the Templar legends are inexorably mixed, even though the chapel was founded over a hundred years after the Order’s suppression. It figures largely in many theories about the Templars, their purpose and survival."1

不負責任翻譯:

雖然Roslin是在聖殿騎士被鎮壓的一百年多年前就建構完成,這個禮拜堂與聖殿騎士卻依然有著非常微妙的關連。它描素出許多眾人對於聖殿騎士的猜測、它們的主旨、和這個組織的存活。




1. The hereditary Grand Masters of the Masons in Scotland was the Sin Clair family. Traditionally Hugh de Payens was supposed to have married Katherine St. Clair.
2. Roslin Chapel with its mysterious and copious carving was built and is still owned by the Sinclair family.
3. It contains within it the burial stone of William Sinclair who died fighting the Moors in Spain whilst taking the heart of Robert the Bruce to be buried in the Holy Land. The grave slab has a foliated sword on it that is presumed to represent the Templars.2

不負責任翻譯:

共濟總會Grand Master是Sin Clair家族傳代下來的。禮拜堂裡頭大量神祕的雕刻都是由Sinclair家族所建造。如今擁有全還是歸屬它們。在禮拜堂藏有William Sinclair的埋葬石。William Sinclair在西班牙抗戰摩爾人的同時,背負了帶著當時蘇格蘭國王Robert the Bruce的心臟回到聖地的重任。在墓碑上的劍,被人揣測為聖殿騎士的象徵。

 


Rosslyn禮拜堂是全天下所有的建築物裡,最不可思議的。大家都來參訪,但沒有人會忘了它。[1861年,蘇格蘭人報]

"One place in Scotland where the Templars' presence lingers is in Roslin Chapel, which ironically was not built until over a hundred years after the Order's suppression.  The chapel was founded in 1446 by Sir William St. Clair as a collegiate chapel where colleges of priests could sing perpetual masses for the souls of his family.  From the outside of the chapel looks as if it is a fairly plain fifteenth-century building, possibly incomplete, but possessing the characteristic features of fifteenth-century architecture – flying buttresses, pinnacles and gables.  Inside, the chapel looks as if was designed by the architect of King’s College Chapel, Cambridge, on speed.  Every surface is encrusted with carvings and decoration.  Roslin is where the chapel is situated, but the chapel is generally known as Rosslyn.

This was a vastly expensive chapel to build.  Some of the workmen probably came from Paris as continental influences can be seen in some of the carvings.  But others were local... perhaps bringing together local and foreign craftsmen spurred them on to ever more fantastical work, and Roslin Chapel is a tribute to the spirit of competition.  Competition and craft jealousy certainly surrounds the richly carved apprentice pillar that forms the south pier of the eastern chapels.  This pillar is unique in church architecture but is supposed to have been modelled on a drawing of a similar pillar sent from Rome.  So difficult did this look that the master mason decided to go to look at the original.  Whilst he was away his apprentice made the pillar.  When the master mason returned and saw this he slew the apprentice out of jealousy.  The head of a young man in the south-west corner of the choir is supposed to be the apprentice, a weeping woman his mother, and a surly looking older man the master mason...

The riot of images in the chapel have produced many theories as to what these mean and whether the chapel hides a secret.  It has been suggested that this is the grail chapel and the Holy Grail, guarded by knights in full armour, lies beneath the floor of the underground sarcristy... The key to this is the grave stone of William St. Clair who died fighting the Moors in Spain whilst taking Robert the Bruce’s heart to be buried in the Holy Land.  This has a floriated cross on it that is thought to be the emblem of the Templars.  Further back in time there is a tradition that Hugh de Payens, the founder of the Order was married to a Katherine St. Clair.  Other Templar images can be seen in the Chapel, and the traditional role of the St. Clair/Sinclairs as hereditary Grand Masters of the Scottish Freemasons completes the circle."3

不負責任大綱:

1446年被William St. Clair創立為學院。從外觀看起來,像是個一般的十五世紀建築物。內部則是看起來像是劍橋King's College Chapel設計人快速設計出來的成品。每個角落都佈滿了雕刻象。Roslin是禮拜堂所在地。但大眾稱它為Rosslyn。

建造此禮拜堂消耗非常龐大的資金。許多建造人才似乎是從巴黎來到這的。也有一些是當地的。禮拜堂被視為競爭的精神象徵。故事原由來自於教堂內部的三大柱子。大師傅再開始雕刻最重要的第三根大柱之前,跑去到處旅遊尋求靈感。但當他回來後,竟然發現學徒早就把那最重要的柱子雕刻完成,而且工也非常的精緻細膩。出於忌妒心裡,竟然就把他的學徒給謀殺了。如果注意看不同的角落還有那位師父、學徒、以及學徒的母親的雕像在禮拜堂內。

曾有學者猜測基督教裡傳言的『聖杯』就是藏在此地。


內部的建築裝潢極為精緻優美。[Dorothy Wordsworth - 桂冠詩人 William Wordsworth的妹妹]


天仙念:這篇沒有寫的很好,可不可以麻煩大家不要推出去獻醜。謝謝。


Note:
1. Lord, Evelyn, The Knights Templar in Britain, (Harlow: Pearson/Longman, 2002) pp. 195-198
2. ibid, pp. 280
3. ibid, pp. 280

 

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